Second stage: Immune system
The exploration of the AhR signalling pathway explains the interactions between the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the human immune system.
Depending on the hazardous substance, the cascade of events triggered by the activation of the dioxin receptor in the area of the immune system ranges from an immediate reaction of the immune system (skin reaction) via the autoimmune diseases referred to as civilization diseases up to organ failure (e.g., heart, liver) or lethal cancerous diseases.
In the case of suspected diabetes, for instance, an attending physician (or medical specialist) solely arranges for the laboratory tests that are required for the diagnosis itself.
The investigation on the pathogenesis (development of the disease) of an autoimmune disease, in contrast, requires the determination of all changes that can be detected by laboratory tests.
This includes further parameters in addition to the immune system, e.g., the hormone and detoxification systems as well as metabolic disorders, but also the interaction with other receptors. (More information will follow).
A comparison of the diabetes-typical, i.e. extremely specific derailment described by Honkanen et al in the Journal für Immunologie (journal of immunology) 2010 with the one outlined by Bellemore and colleagues in the Journal für klinische experimentelle Immunologie (journal of clinical and experimental immunology) published in 2015 clearly shows that the changes of the laboratory values depicted by the author groups are extremely similar to each other:
Hokanen et al,
IL-17 immunity in human type 1 diabetes
JImmunol. 2010 Aug 1;185(3):1959-67
Bellemore et al
Preventative role of interleukin-17 producing regulatory T helper type 17 (Treg 17) cells in type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.
Clin Exp Immunol. 2015 Dec;182(3):261-9. doi: 10.1111/cei.12691. Epub 2015 Sep 22.
Further reading on this subject:
AZIZI G. Th22 cells in autoimmunity: a review of current knowledge
ABU-REZQA H.A. Arylhydrocarbon-Receptor Ligand stimulate auto-reactive TC1/TC17 T-Cell
Activation and enhance self antigen-induced Diabetes
Int. Journal of Immunolgy Research, Vol. 3 Issue 1 2013, pp. 29-39
Benson, Jenna Marie Consequences of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation in Crohn's Disease